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Academic writing

  1. 只能根据自己的论证得出结论,论证和论点必须和自己的结论相对应(透镜效用)。
  2. 说理性的写作不能使用形容词,如编程就没有形容词。
  3. 长引用可以使用,但是要给予解释。
  4. 人文学科尤其是哲学,可以使用 i believe。

what does an argumentative paper do?

  1. to argue for a point?
  2. to address a well defined question.

what is thesis statement

  1. 批评一种评论。显示某种论证不好的。
  2. 证明某种论证后者反对某人的评论。
  3. 为某种论证提供原因。
  4. 为某种论证提供反例。
  5. 对比两种观点的优点和缺点。
  6. 给出解释某种论点的例子,给出让某种论点更具可信度的论证。
  7. 延展一个哲学家的观点,他们可能并没有对这种观点过多背书。
  8. 讨论这些观点的结果。
  9. 重新修改这些论点,在原有的论点上做些反对。

Dual reading

  1. thesis

  2. structure

  3. intro

  4. transition

  5. presentation

  6. thesis

  7. argumentative steps

  8. proof

  9. related views

note taking

  1. do not copy it.
  2. do not copy it.
  3. do not do it in one fashion.
  4. two reading fashion
    1. linear
      1. Cornell system
        1. record, reduce, recite, reflect, review
      2. how many questions does it take to understand this thesis?
    2. non-linear notes.
      1. mind-map
    3. Read the literature with particular detail and insight.

class readings

The Challenge of Cultural Relativism

  1. Our judgment comes from "independent or objective standards" from our culture.

    1. The standard of one culture contains authority from tradition and ancestors.
  2. Cultural Relativism: There are only various cultural codes.

  3. Why should we tolerate other cultures?

    1. Cultural relativists take pride in their tolerance.
    2. Culture reigns supreme within the bounds of the culture itself.
  4. The argument of cultural differences argument is not good.

    1. Its premises must all be true.
    2. Its conclusion must logically follow from the premises.
    3. Greek: It was wrong to eat the dead. (set A)
    4. Callatian: it was right. (set B)
    5. It does not mean there are no object standards. It could still be true.
  5. what follows from cultural relativism?

    1. we could not say other cultures are morally inferior to us.
    2. we also could not criticize the code of our society.
      1. We cannot criticize our traditions from our perspective. If actions are based on social customs, then no one has the right to judge them as right or wrong.
    3. The steepness of moral progress.
      1. Cause progress means replacing the old ways with new and improved ways.
      2. But how could we judge a new way is better than any standard?
      3. Moral progress has stopped in time, we could compare the current system as progress to past ages.
      4. the only way to improve a society is to make its system match its ideals better.
  6. It appears that there is not much variation among different societies.

    1. Cultural differences differ from what we believe, but not our values.
    2. We could not say that societies are different, just because of their customs, but we have to take their factual beliefs, and their physical environment into considerment.
    3. A custom comes from its specific reason, this reason may not be shared across trees of traditions.
    4. Values may shared across the world, but physical conditions may not.
  7. Values may have a common ground.

    1. From the importance of communication, we can figure out that societies cannot exist without honesty. (proved value could be shared.)
    2.  In another case, a society without a rule against murder will not endure.
    3. Similar values may be shared across traditions, with the necessity of continuing existence.
    4. The similarity of human nature suggests that differences are negligible.
  8. Is there a culture-independent standard of right and wrong?

    1. Does excision promote the welfare of some one or some group? (Single cultre)
    2. Does actions promote the welfare of some one or some grooup?(Cross culture)
  9. People do not want to judge other cultures?

    1. Nervousness about interfering in the social customs of other peoples.
    2. We should have basic tolerance of other cultures.
    3. But we may not need to tolerate all cultures.
    4. To condemn a particular custom is not to condemn an entire culture. 
    5. All human societies are mixtures of good and bad practices.Excision happens to be one of the bad ones.